SkooveLearn PianoDownload on the App Store
Install Now

What are broken chords and how to play them on piano?

broken chords

Broken chords form an essential element in piano music, characterized by their sequential note execution rather than simultaneous play. This technique transforms a chord, typically a set of notes played in unison, into a melodic line, enriching the harmonic landscape of a piece. Such an approach to chord execution brings a distinct rhythmic and textural quality to piano compositions, making them pivotal for both practice and performance.

Start your musical journey
  • Fall in love with the music - Learn your favorite songs; whether they're classical, pop, jazz or film music, all at a level that suits you.
  • Enjoy interactive piano lessons - Learn with courses that help you master everything from music theory, chords, technique and more.
  • Get real-time feedback - Improve your practice with rich feedback as Skoove listens to your playing and highlights what went well and areas for improvement.
7 day free trial
No credit card details required
Start your piano journey now!

Essentials of broken chord patterns

Basic structure of broken chords

The essence of what is a broken chord lies in its ability to transform a static harmonic sound into a dynamic musical phrase. Broken chords are constructed by sequentially playing the notes of a chord. Typically, a chord consists of three or more notes played simultaneously; however, when these notes are played one after the other, they form a broken chord. This pattern can be ascending, descending, or any combination thereof. Understanding the basic structure of broken chords involves recognizing the root, third, fifth, and potentially additional tones that constitute the full chord.


For example, a C major chord, when broken, would be played as individual C, E, and G notes in succession. This approach not only adds a rhythmic quality to the music but also allows for a more nuanced expression of the chord’s character.

 C major chord

C major chord 4-4

Start free trial

Common broken chord progressions

Exploring common broken chord progressions is essential for pianists seeking to expand their repertoire. A broken chord piano progression often follows familiar patterns found in various musical styles. For instance, the I-IV-V progression, integral to classical and popular music, when played as broken chords, offers a harmonically pleasing and easily recognizable structure. In jazz, the ii-V-I progression is frequently employed, providing a smooth, flowing transition through key changes.

Common broken chord

The broken chord symbol in sheet music is typically the same as for block chords; however, the way they are played differentiates them. Recognizing these symbols and understanding their execution in a broken manner is key to mastering this technique.

Moreover, the beauty of piano broken chords lies in their versatility. Whether in a soulful ballad or an upbeat pop tune, these progressions can be adapted to set the mood and enhance the musical texture.

Start free trial

Playing broken chords in different time signatures

Playing broken chords effectively requires an understanding of various time signatures. In simple time signatures like 4/4 or 3/4, each beat is divided into two equal parts. When applying broken chords in these time signatures, the rhythm and pace at which the notes of the chord are played can significantly influence the overall feel of the piece. For instance, a broken chord played with each note corresponding to each beat in a 4/4 time signature creates a steady and predictable rhythm, ideal for beginners or for establishing a calm, steady pace in a piece.

4-4 time signature

Broken chords in compound time

Conversely, compound time signatures like 6/8 or 9/8 divide each beat into three equal parts, creating a more complex rhythmic structure. Mastery of broken chords in these time signatures involves not only playing the notes of the chord in sequence but also aligning them with the compound rhythm. This can add a sense of fluidity and sophistication to the music. For example, playing a broken chord in a 6/8 time signature might involve playing two notes of the chord per beat, resulting in a flowing, waltz-like rhythm.

broken chord in a 6/8 time signature

Understanding these differences is crucial for pianists, as it allows for the appropriate adaptation of broken chords to different musical contexts. Whether in simple or compound time, broken chords provide a tool for enhancing the rhythmic and harmonic richness of a piece, offering endless possibilities for creative expression.

Start free trial

Creative variations with broken chords

Standard broken chord patterns provide a foundation upon which pianists can build their skills. However, exploring variations within these patterns can lead to creative and unique interpretations of music. By altering the order, timing, or dynamics of the notes within a broken chord, a pianist can drastically change the mood and style of a piece. For instance, playing the notes of a broken chord with varying velocities or introducing syncopation can create a sense of excitement and unpredictability.

Innovative alternatives to traditional patterns

Moving beyond traditional patterns, pianists can experiment with innovative ways to play a broken chord. This can include integrating non-standard intervals, altering the chord’s structure, or even merging different broken chords together. Such experimentation not only enhances a pianist’s technical skills but also expands their creative horizons, allowing for more personal and expressive performances.

For those interested in composition and improvisation, understanding how to manipulate broken chords opens up a world of possibilities. It allows for the creation of unique harmonic textures and rhythmic patterns that can set a composition apart.

Advanced broken chord techniques and styles

Advanced piano playing often involves a nuanced use of dynamics and articulation, and this is particularly true for broken chords. By varying the volume and touch of each note within a broken chord, pianists can convey a wide range of emotions and textures. For example, playing the notes of a broken chord softly and legato (smoothly) can create a sense of calm and introspection, while playing them loudly and staccato (detached) can evoke excitement or tension.

The role of broken chords in music

The use of broken chords extends beyond mere technique; they are instrumental in conveying the emotional undertones and thematic narratives within musical compositions. Their application varies widely, capable of evoking a range of emotions from tranquility to intensity. Mastery of broken chords is thus essential for pianists at all levels, as it not only enhances technical proficiency but also contributes significantly to the depth and nuance of musical interpretation.

Broken chords are not confined to a single style or genre; they are a versatile tool that can be adapted to various musical contexts. In classical music, broken chords can provide a lush, romantic backdrop. In contrast, in contemporary genres like pop or jazz, they can be used more rhythmically to add groove or drive to a piece. Understanding how to adapt broken chord techniques to different styles is a valuable skill, allowing pianists to navigate diverse musical landscapes with ease.

Moreover, the integration of broken chords into different genres often involves understanding the stylistic nuances of each genre. For instance, in jazz, broken chords might be used more freely and improvisationally, while in classical music, they might adhere more closely to structured patterns and progressions.

Practice strategies for broken chords

To master broken chords, consistent and focused practice is essential. A variety of exercises and drills can aid in this process. Beginners might start with simple arpeggios, which are essentially broken chords played one note at a time, to get comfortable with the finger movements. As proficiency grows, pianists can practice with more complex chord structures and progressions, varying the rhythm and speed to challenge their skills.

Incorporating different time signatures and dynamics into these exercises can also be beneficial. For instance, practicing the same broken chord pattern in both 4/4 and 6/8 time signatures can provide insight into how rhythm influences the feel of the chord. Similarly, playing broken chords with different dynamic levels (piano, forte, crescendo, etc.) can help in mastering expressive playing.

Start free trial

Tips for effective practice

Effective practice of broken chords involves more than repetitive playing. Here are some tips to enhance practice sessions:

  • Slow down: Begin by playing broken chords slowly to ensure accuracy and clarity of each note.
  • Use a metronome: This helps in maintaining a consistent tempo and developing a strong sense of rhythm.
  • Focus on hand position and finger strength: Proper technique is crucial to avoid strain and to play efficiently.
  • Listen actively: Pay attention to the sound produced. Listening helps in refining tone and dynamics.
  • Experiment with different styles: Try playing broken chords in various musical styles to understand their versatility.
  • Incorporate into pieces: Apply what you’ve learned in actual pieces of music, not just in isolation.

The practical value of broken chords in piano playing

In conclusion, the effective use of broken chords is a vital skill for any pianist seeking to enhance their musical repertoire. These chords are not merely an exercise in technique; they are an essential component of musical expression, adding depth and complexity to piano compositions. For beginners and advanced players alike, the mastery of broken chords is crucial for a well-rounded understanding of piano music.

As you incorporate broken chords into your playing, focus on the practical applications: how they can vary the texture of a piece, provide rhythmic interest, and enrich harmonic progressions. Through consistent practice and exploration of different styles, broken chords become a valuable tool in your musical toolkit.

Start free trial

Author of this blog post:
Susana Pérez Posada

Susana Pérez Posada

With over seven years in piano education and a deep passion for music therapy, Susana brings a unique blend of expertise to Skoove. A graduate in Music Therapy from SRH Hochschule Heidelberg and an experienced classical pianist from Universidad EAFIT, she infuses her teaching with a holistic approach that transcends traditional piano lessons. In her writings for Skoove, Susana combines her rich musical knowledge with engaging storytelling, enriching the learning experience for pianists of all levels. Away from the piano, she loves exploring new places and immersing herself in a good book, believing these diverse experiences enhance her creative teaching style.

Edited and fact checked by Eddie Bond, multi-instrumentalist performer, composer, and music instructor
Published by Lidya Hovan from the Skoove team

Share this article

Share this article

Don’t leave empty-handed

Get a 7 day trial of Skoove Premium piano lessons