In this post, we will explore seventh chords and learn how they are constructed and how they sound. We will see some song suggestions along the way that include different types of seventh chords and you will see how you can incorporate them into your arrangements.
For pianists, seventh chords can be an eye-opening experience and fuel an exciting progression in your playing. Let’s dive in!
History of seventh chords
The use of seventh chords dates back to the Baroque and Renaissance periods when composers like the Italian Claudio Monteverdi would use them in his cadences. At a time, the use of seventh chords was considered unorthodox and dissonant as they didn’t fit with some traditional models of composing.
However today you will struggle to find a radio station playing music that does not feature seventh chords.
Before we dive into the world of seventh chords, it’s important you have a good grasp of two things: basic major and minor chords and intervals.
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Types of triad
There are four different types of triad: major, minor, diminished and augmented. You can see an example of the different chord types below and you can read more about constructing these types of triads here.
In the above example, the C Major Triad uses notes C, E and G. The C Minor triad uses notes C, E flat and G. The C Diminished Triad uses C, E flat and G flat. The Augmented Triad uses C, E and G sharp.
Exercise: Try playing these triads on your piano or keyboard and notice the different sounds they produce and moods they evoke. This trains your ear and also allows your fingers to become familiar with the chord positions.
In terms of the piano intervals of sevenths, we have three options:
- minor seventh
- major seventh
- diminished seventh
- The major seventh interval is 11 semitones (or half steps) above the root note
- the minor seventh interval is 10 semitones (or half steps) above the root note
- the diminished seventh is 9 semitones (or half steps) above the root
For example, in the key of C major:
- the minor seventh interval would take you to B flat
- the major seventh interval would take you to B natural
- the diminished seventh would take you to B double flat, also known as A
What is Skoove?
Throughout this article you will see recommended material from Skoove. Skoove is an excellent online interactive learning platform for piano students. Skoove breaks complex ideas like reading piano sheet music and songs down into easy to understand chunks and allows students to learn at their own pace whilst giving them real time feedback on their playing. If you haven’t already, sign up for a 7-day free trial and see what you think.
Types of seventh chords
Seventh chords are built by using one of the four triads above and adding a seventh above root of that triad. All seventh chords feature some variation on the scale degrees 1 – 3 – 5 – 7. The seventh adds a level of depth, emotion and complexity to the triad which can then make it appropriate to be used in music such as Jazz, R & B, Blues, Film Music and many Pop chord progressions.
Music genres tending not to use Seventh chords would be the likes of Rock, Heavy Metal, EDM, early medieval and Punk. Let’s explore the different types of seventh chords.
Major seventh chord
The first chord we are going to look at is the Major Seventh chord. This is a common chord which you will have heard in many types of contemporary music and even so far back as the romantic era with examples in Claude Debussy’s “Claire De Lune.” Major Seventh chords are often found in romantic ballads and soul music. They possess a warm feel to them and you find them used a lot in love songs.
The Major Seventh chord is created by adding a Major Seventh to the root of a Major Triad. In the key of C major, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E, G, B. For this chord symbol, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets as Cmaj7 or C∆.
Much like learning a new word, the best way of learning about seventh chords is to understand the theory behind them and then see and hear them in context. Take a look at this tutorial of Coldplay’s “A Sky Full Of Stars” in Skoove to experience the major seventh chord in action.
Minor seventh chord
Minor Seventh chords are another heavily featured chord in Pop and R & B Music. They are versatile chords that can be used in succession to create a sombre feel to a song. To create a Minor 7th chord, just add a Minor Seventh to the root of a Minor Triad. In the key of C minor, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E flat, G and B flat. For this chord, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets as Cm7, Cmin7 or C–.
Before we move on to dominant seventh chords, a great way of consolidating what we have gone through so far is to take a look at the ‘Candlelight chords and seventh chord formula’ lesson below. Here, Skoove patiently walks you through a progression that features both the major seventh chord and minor seventh chord.
Dominant seventh chord
Dominant Seventh chords are a staple of Blues and Jazz music, but are also featured in other genres such as Latin, Bluegrass and Pop. They have a unique energy about them combined with a tension created by the tritone within them. To create a Dominant Seventh chord, you add a Minor Seventh to the root of a Major Triad (major minor seventh chord). In the key of C, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E, G and B flat. For this chord, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets as C7, occasionally Cdom7.
Dominant seventh chords are used extensively in Blues music, particularly Boogie Woogie piano. For a great introduction to dominant sevenths in blues, take a look below at the ‘Bouncie Boogie’ lesson in Skoove to learn how to play dominant seventh chords in the context of a 12-bar blues progression with some nice dominant seventh chords in the right hand. Skoove breaks the progression down so you can learn at your own pace and get to experience what a dominant seventh chord feels like and sounds like over a groovy bass line.
Minor/major seventh chords
The minor/major seventh chord has a very interesting feel to it. You’ll hear this type of seventh chord often used in film soundtracks and jazz music. From time to time it makes a cameo appearance in some pop music. To create a minor/major seventh chord, you add a major seventh to the root of a minor triad. In the key of C, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E flat, G and B. For this chord, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets as Cminmaj7 or C – maj7.
Half diminished seventh chord
The half diminished seventh chord has been used in music for centuries and can be found as far back as compositions by Bach, Chopin and Mendelsohn. The chord sounds quite melancholic which also lends it well to being used in Jazz and Musical Theater. To create a half diminished seventh chord, you add a minor seventh above a diminished chord. In the key of C, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E flat, G flat, and B flat. For this chord, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets as CØ7 or Cmin7(b5).
An excellent example of this chord is featured in the Latin jazz song “Sway.” See the tutorial below to learn how to play the half diminished seventh chord as part of a well-known mambo jazz classic.
Diminished seventh chord
Diminished seventh chords are not as common in contemporary music. However, you will find them a lot in music from the Classical and Romantic eras and in various film scores as they are fantastic at creating a sense of trepidation, tension and doom. To create a diminished seventh chord, you add a diminished seventh above the root of a diminished triad. In the key of C, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E flat, G flat, and B double flat. For this chord symbol, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets CΟ7 or Cdim7.
For a great example of this chord being featured beautifully, check out the Skoove tutorial “Au Claire De Lune” below and pay attention to the notes in bar 3. Skoove allows you to study the score here whilst listening to the sound of the diminished seventh which will help you to learn both how these chords on piano are notated and how they sound.
Augmented seventh chord
Augmented seventh chords are most commonly featured in jazz music, particularly as substitute chords for dominant sevenths. To create an augmented seventh chord, you add a minor seventh above the root of an augmented triad. In the key of C, in root position, the chord would consist of C, E, G sharp, and B flat. For this chord, you will often see it written on sheet music and lead sheets Caug7 or C7(#5).
Try including an augmented seventh chord as a substitute for a dominant seventh using the chords in the Georgia On My Mind tutorial as a guide.
Seventh chord inversions
Now it’s time to discover what seventh chords sound like in different inversions. Inversions open up a world of possibilities for voicing your seventh chords. For basic triads, you have two inversions, however for seventh chords, you have three:
- First inversion features the third scale degree as the lowest sounding pitch
- Second inversion features the fifth scale degree as the lowest sounding pitch
- Third inversion features the seventh scale degree as the lowest sounding pitch
Playing seventh chords in context
Seventh chords typically exist in songs with other seventh chords. A great example of this is in the jazz standard “Autumn Leaves.” In this song, there are dominant seventh chords, minor seventh chords, major seventh chords and half diminished seventh chords. The lesson below gives you the seventh chords above the notation. Try playing the right-hand melody in the video and use seventh chords in your left hand to accompany. You will need to think the seventh chords out beforehand, and perhaps even write them down. But with practice, these chords will become second nature.
Practicing seventh chords
One of the most fun parts about playing the piano is getting to make your own original arrangements of songs. Just because a particular song doesn’t use seventh chords in the commercial recording, doesn’t mean you can’t use them in your arrangement of the song. Use your ear and if you think using a seventh chord sounds better in a certain place in the song, put it in there. Make it your own and express your own taste.
Learning piano is a lifelong journey, and sometimes we progress rapidly and at other times it can feel hard earned, however there are times when there are “Ah ha” moments of realisation and discovery where we come across something that leapfrogs us to the next level in our understanding of music and for me, learning about seventh chords and practicing them was one of those moments. I hope this article, the seventh chords featured in it and the tutorials in Skoove resonate with you!
Author of this blog post
Joe is a pianist, tutor, vocalist and songwriter from Liverpool now living in the North East of Ireland. Joe studied a Degree in Music in the internationally renowned LIPA and has taught in a number of music schools in Ireland. He has been performing for over 15 years in countries including the UK, Ireland, Singapore, Norway and Spain and loves to inspire students through music.